# Biomatics and Entanglement

### From Biomatics.org

**Quantum entanglement** is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, and polarization, performed on entangled particles are found to be correlated. For example, if a pair of particles is generated in such a way that their total spin is known to be zero, and one particle is found to have clockwise spin on a certain axis, the spin of the other particle, measured on the same axis, will be found to be counterclockwise, as is to be expected due to their entanglement. However, this behavior gives rise to seemingly paradoxical effects: any measurement of a property of a particle performs an irreversible collapse on that particle and will change the original quantum state. In the case of entangled particles, such a measurement will be on the entangled system as a whole. Given that the statistics of these measurements cannot be replicated by models in which each particle has its own state independent of the other, it appears that one particle of an entangled pair "knows" what measurement has been performed on the other, and with what outcome, even though there is no known means for such information to be communicated between the particles, which at the time of measurement may be separated by arbitrarily large distances.

Such phenomena were the subject of a 1935 paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen,^{[1]} and several papers by Erwin Schrödinger shortly thereafter,^{[2]}^{[3]} describing what came to be known as the EPR paradox. Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realist view of causality (Einstein referring to it as "spooky action at a distance")^{[4]} and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete. Later, however, the counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics were verified experimentally^{[5]} in tests where the polarization or spin of entangled particles were measured at separate locations, statistically violating Bell's inequality, demonstrating that the classical conception of "local realism" cannot be correct.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement

https://www.quantamagazine.org/entanglement-made-simple-20160428/

**Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States**

Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network—and hence the geometry—is largely fixed *a priori* by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.140502

No matter the nature of the phenomenon that entangles "things" we need to study the information processing potential of the particular dyamic system. Several questions present themselves.

Geometry

Organic chemistry

atoms, molecules, triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons (boat/chair)

There seems to be a universal scaling phenomenon based on geometrical properties. e.g. no matter the scale a tetrahedral geometry has certain thermodynamic as well as infodynamic properties that create a powerful computing system. Three points will always determine a triangle, and a tetrahedral geometery always maximizes the distance between 4 points. Thus, the question is whether there is anything to be learned by fixing one end of the entanglement chain and studying the behaviour of the other end.

Network Theory

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_topology

**Quantum Metric and Entanglement on Spin Networks**

Mar 19, 2017 - 162 pages

- e-Print: arXiv:1703.06415 [gr-qc] | PDF

**Abstract **(arXiv)

Motivated by the idea that, in the background-independent framework of a Quantum Theory of Gravity, entanglement is expected to play a key role in the reconstruction of spacetime geometry, we investigate the possibility of using the formalism of Geometric Quantum Mechanics (GQM) to give a tensorial characterization of entanglement on spin network states. Our analysis focuses on the simple case of a single link graph (Wilson line state) for which we define a dictionary to construct a Riemannian metric tensor and a symplectic structure on the space of states. The manifold of (pure) quantum states is then stratified in terms of orbits of equally entangled states and the block-coefficient matrices of the corresponding pulled-back tensors fully encode the information about separability and entanglement. In particular, the off-diagonal blocks define an entanglement monotone interpreted as a distance with respect to the separable state. As such, it provides a measure of graph connectivity. Finally, in the maximally entangled gauge-invariant case, the entanglement monotone is proportional to a power of the area of the surface dual to the link. This suggests a connection between the GQM formalism and the (simplicial) geometric properties of spin network states through entanglement.

**Note:**162 pages, 11 figures, Master Thesis

**Thesis:**Master Naples U. (2015)

**Supervisor:**Goffredo Chirco, Daniele Oriti, Patrizia Vitale

**Keyword(s):**INSPIRE: spin: network | space-time: geometry | invariance: gauge | entanglement | quantum mechanics | Wilson loop | symplectic | structure | duality | surface | simplex | orbit

http://inspirehep.net/record/1518376?ln=en

Strings-as models of computational strucure, including data and process, substring functions